Marzano Elements And Resources

Domain 2: Standards Based Instruction

Element Teaching Techniques

Identifying Critical Content from the Standards (Element 4)

Focus Statement: Teacher uses the progression of standards based learning targets (embedded within a performance scale) to identify accurate critical content during a lesson or part of a lesson.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students know what content is important and what is not important as it relates to learning the target(s).

Previewing New Content (Element 5)

Focus Statement: Teacher engages students in previewing activities that require students to access prior knowledge as it relates to the new content.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students make a link from what they know to what is about to be learned.

Helping Students Process New Content (Element 6)

Focus Statement: Teacher systematically engages student groups in processing and generating conclusions about new con tent.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students can summarize and generate conclusions about the new content during interactions with other students.


Using Questions to Help Students Elaborate on Content (Element 7)

Focus Statement: Teacher uses a linear sequence of increasingly complex questions that require students to critically think about the content.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students accurately elaborate on content.

Reviewing Content (Element 8)

Focus Statement: Teacher engages students in brief review of content that highlights the cumulative nature of the content.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students know the previously taught critical content.

Helping Students Practice Skills, Strategies, and Process (Element 9)

Focus Statement: When the content involves a skill, strategy, or process, the teacher engages students in practice activities that help them develop fluency and alternative ways of executing procedures.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students develop automaticity with skills, strategies, or processes.

Helping Students Examine Similarities and Differences (Element 10)

Focus Statement: When presenting content, the teacher helps students deepen their knowledge of the critical content by examining similarities and differences.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates student knowledge of critical content is deepened by examining similarities and differences.

Helping Students Examine Their Reasoning (Element 11)

Focus Statement: Teacher helps students produce and defend a claim (assertion of truth or factual statement) by examining their own reasoning or the logic of presented information, processes, and procedures

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students identify and articulate errors in logic or reasoning and/or provide clear support for a claim (assertion of truth or factual statement).

Helping Students Revise Knowledge (Element 12)

Focus Statement: Teacher engages students in revision of previous knowledge by correcting errors and misconceptions as well as adding new information.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students make additions, deletions, clarifications, or revisions to previous knowledge that deepen their understanding.

Helping Students Engage in Cognitively Complex Tasks (Element 13)

Focus Statement: Teacher coaches and supports students in complex tasks that require experimenting with the use of their knowledge by generating and testing a proposition, a theory, and/or a hypothesis.

Desired Effect: Evidence (formative data) demonstrates students prove or disprove the proposition, theory, or hypothesis.